Who Must Prosecute Criminal Actions

Sec. 5. Who must prosecute criminal actions. – All criminal actions commenced  by  a  complaint  or  information  shall  be  prosecuted under  the  direction  and  control  of  the  prosecutor.  However,  in Municipal  Trial  Courts  or  Municipal  Circuit  Trial  Courts  when  the prosecutor  assigned  thereto  or  to  the  case  is  not  available,  the offended party, any peace officer, or public officer charged with the enforcement  of  the  law  violated  may  prosecute  the  case.  This authority shall cease upon actual intervention of the prosecutor or upon  elevation  of  the  case  to  the  Regional  Trial  Court.(Read  A.M.
NO. 02-2-07-SC [Effective May 01, 2002]  
Latest Amendments to Section 5, Rule 110 of the Revised Rules of Criminal   Procedure   which   provides:      "Section   5.   Who   must prosecute criminal action. - All criminal actions either commenced by  complaint  or  by  information  shall  be  prosecuted  under  the direction and control of a public prosecutor. In case of heavy work schedule of the public prosecutor or in the  event of  lack of public prosecutors, the private prosecutor may be authorized in writing by the Chief of the Prosecution Office or the Regional State Prosecutor to prosecute the case subject to the approval of the court. Once so
authorized to prosecute the criminal action, the private prosecutor shall continue to prosecute the case up to end of the trial even in the absence of a public prosecutor, unless the authority is revoked or otherwise withdrawn.  x x x .").
The  crimes  of  adultery  and  concubinage  shall  not  be  prosecuted except upon a complaint filed by the offended spouse. The offended party  cannot  institute  criminal  prosecution  without  including  the guilty  parties,  if  both  are  alive,  nor,  in  any  case,  if  the  offended party has consented to the offense or pardoned the offenders.
The  offenses  of  seduction,  abduction  and  acts  of  lasciviousness shall  not  be  prosecuted  upon  a  complaint  filed  by  the  offended party or her parents, grandparents or guardian, nor, in any case, if the  offender  has  been  expressly  pardoned  by  any  of  them.  If  the offended  party  dies  or  becomes  incapacitated  before  she  can  file the  complaint,  and  she  has  no  known  parents,  grandparents  or guardian, the State shall initiate the criminal action in her behalf.
The  offended  party,  even  if  a  minor,  has  the  right  to  initiate  the prosecution  of  the  offenses  of  seduction,  abduction  and  acts  of lasciviousness  independently  of  her  parents,  grandparents,  or guardian,  unless  she  is  incompetent  or  incapable  of  doing  so. Where  the  offended  party,  who  is  a  minor,  fails  to  file  the complaint,  her  parents,  grandparents,  or  guardian  may  file  the
same. The right to file the action granted to parents, grandparents, or  guardian  shall  be  exclusive  of  all  other  persons  and  shall  be exercised  successively  in  the  order  herein  provided,  except  as stated in the preceding paragraph.
No criminal action for defamation which consists in the imputation of any of the offenses mentioned above shall be brought except at he instance of and upon complaint filed by the offended party. 

The prosecution for violation of special laws shall  be governed by the provision thereof.


> General  rule:  all  criminal  actions  commenced  by  the  filing  of  a complaint  or  information  shall  be  prosecuted  under  the  direction and control of the prosecutor
> In the MTC or MCTC, if the prosecutor is unavailable, the offended party,  any  peace  officer  or  public  officer  in  charge  with  the enforcement  of  the  law  violated  may  prosecute.    This  authority ceases  upon  actual  intervention  of  the  prosecutor  or  upon elevation of the case to the RTC.


> No
> A  prosecutor  is  under  no  compulsion  to  file  a  particular  criminal information  where  he  is  not  convinced  that  he  has  evidence  to support his allegations thereof
> May  generally  be  not  compelled  by  mandamus  except  if  the prosecutor shows evident bias in filing the information and refuses to include co-accused without justification
> But before filing of mandamus, the party must first avail  himself of such other remedies such as the filing of a motion for inclusion 
> The power of prosecution is discretionary in nature